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Novel Bio-Bactericide From Unique CE Technology For Garlic Extraction (CE-Allicin) Specialized for Bacterial Diseases Control, Will Be Launched Into Global Market Soonqrcode

Aug. 4, 2022

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Aug. 4, 2022

By LI ZHENZHEN, CHEN TINGZHUO, MU TIANXIU


Agricultural bacterial diseases are caused by the infection of pathogenic bacteria which can be spread by rain and insects through plant stomata and wounds, and are easy to outbreak in high temperature and high humidity environments. When the crops are infected with bacterial diseases, they will appear rot, wilting and other symptoms. Serious infection will cause large area yield and economic losses. At present, there are more than 500 species of bacteria that cause crop diseases worldwide wherein over 200 species are found in China. The infected area in China is about 8 million ha annually, resulting in nearly 20% yield loss. However, the number of the registered bactericides in China only accounts for 2.6% of the total registered products for plant disease control, and the product homogeneity is big in the market. The continuous use of inorganic and organic copper products, antibiotics, etc. has caused  resistance to crops’ pesticide and chemical residue, seriously impacting the quality and safety of agricultural products, foods and human health. To develop a new bactericide takes a long time and high costs. In the past ten years, there is no new bactericide launched, especially the eco-friendly products. At the same time, with the rapid development of human society, it is imminent to improve the quality of agricultural products and food and the eco-environment to meet the consumers’ demands.


With the rapid development of science and technology, through deep research on plant extraction and formulations technology, it has been found that more and more plant metabolites can be used to prevent and control plant bacterial diseases, which not only have good results, but also degrade quickly in nature with minimum possibility of pesticide resistance development. Garlic (Allium sativum), a Liliaceae Allium plant with unique odor and antibacterial activity, has antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, anti-rheumatism, anti-dysentery, anti-boils and other effects. Its medicinal values are mainly relied on the sulfur-containing natural compounds of which the most important active ingredient is Allicin [1].


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Fig. 1: Garlic


1.Research Development of Allicin


In the early and mid-19th century, when Louis Pasteur, the famous microbiologist, revealed garlic had  certain antibacterial activity, the researches in this area attracted the interest of many scholars. As a result, garlic was known as ″plant-based natural broad-spectrum antibiotics″. Cysteine is essential for bacterial reproduction and growth. The oxygen atom of allicin can combine with the sulfhydryl group of Cysteine so as to inhibit the reproduction and growth of bacteria [2]. Allicin has certain inhibitory effect on biotic stresses such as pathogenic bacteria, and for prevention and control of bacterial diseases including bacterial angular leaf spot, soft rot, canker, bacterial wilt, etc.. in citrus, kiwifruit, melons, solanaceous vegetables, leafy vegetables, etc..[3], with a general control efficiency of 40-50%. Global reports show that the researches on allicin extraction process are divided into three methods: organic solvent extraction, steam distillation and supercritical CO2 extraction [4-5].


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Fig. 2: Allicin Destructive Effect on Pathogenic Bacteria Mycelium of Root Rot[A] and Rhizoctonia[B]


Although allicin has broad-spectrum antibacterial activity and is a natural biopesticide, due to its structure, allicin is easy to break down, and is extremely unstable under high temperature and alkaline conditions, resulting in a significant reduction of the bacteria inhibiting ability in its commercial application. According to the China pesticide registration information, as of 2010, there was only one company registered allicin for control of powdery mildew in cucumber and goji berry, and its registration certificate was not renewed. And the relevant researches is still in the scientific papers, and there is no progress in its industrialization.


2.Latest Researches of Allicin


1)Registration information of Allicin


As a new natural active ingredient, allicin has been recognized by the major regions and countries in the world. In Brazil, allicin is registered as a biological pesticide against root-knot nematodes. In the United States, allicin is registered as a biological control product against piercing-sucking pests and bacterial diseases. The EU also approved the pesticide registration of allicin for the first time in 2021.


According to China pesticide registration information from ICAMA, in 2016, Chengdu Newsun Crop Science Co., Ltd. (hereinafter referred to as ″Chengdu Newsun″) obtained the registration certificates of 50% allicin technical grade and 5% allicin micro-emulsion formulation, which is the first company to formally register allicin in China and also the first to register allicin technical in China so far.


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2)Researches on Allicin Co-Extraction Technology


According to related reports, after years of research and development, Chengdu Newsun has solved the problem of single component (allicin) and realized the industrialization of allicin by botanical ″Co-Extraction (CE) Technology″. The CE extraction technology of allicin technical retains as many natural components as possible from garlic extract on the premise that the content of the indication component (allicin) is ensured. The synergistic effect between the natural components and allicin makes the commercialization of allicin possible.


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Fig.3: Main Active Ingredients of CE-Allicin TKL
(The data comes from the enterprise standard information public service platform)


3)Researches on CE Allicin Formulation


In order to ensure the stability of CE Allicin formulation, after years of research and development, Chengdu Newsun has developed an anti-decomposition technology based on natural stabilizer, which reduces the decomposition rate of allicin technical by 4 times, as a result, minimizes allicin break down in the field. Through the selection and ratio optimization of high polymer surfactants to realize nano-emulsification of the formulation, improving the particle size, fineness and stability of the active ingredient, quickly and completely dispersed and miscible with water. At the same time, use the physical odor eliminating technology to reduce the irritating odor of CE Allicin. The formulating process of CE Allicin is safe, environmentally friendly and non-pollution to the environment, safe to storage and transportation, and without strong smell.


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Fig. 4:  Good Performance and Compatibility of CE-Allicin 5% ME(Dati-Allin)


4)Researches on the Application Technology of CE Allicin


The botanical bactericide CE-Allicin 5% ME formulation helps reduce the adverse effects of biotic stresses in crop production and alleviate the increasing environmental problems. At present, the use of chemical pesticides is not scientific. Long-term dependency on chemical pesticides, high frequency of chemical pesticide applications, and large amount of pesticide input per unit area, resulted in serious crop pesticide resistance problem, decreased control efficiency year by year, and the high risk of excessive pesticide residues and environment pollution [6]. Compared with chemical pesticides, biopesticides have the advantages of fast degradation, low toxicity, low possibility of causing resistance development and generating harmful substances, eco-friendly and etc. [7], but their efficiency lasts 30-40% shorter compared to traditional chemical pesticides.


Lab test evaluation. According to the lab bioassay tests, it was found that CE Allicin 5% ME formulation not only has strong inhibitory effects on bacterial diseases such as canker, tobacco bacterial wilt and bacterial angular leaf spot, but also has a good inhibitory effect on other plant diseases such as Rhizoctonia solani, pepper Fusarium wilt and root knot nematodes.


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Fig. 5: Indoor Bioassay Results of CE-Allicin 5% ME (Dati-Allin)
Against Capsicum Fusarium Wilt and Rhizoctonia Solani


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Fig. 6: The In Vitro Activity of CE-Allicin 5% ME (Dati-Allin) Against Root-knot Nematodes Reaches 83-100%


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Fig. 7: Indoor Bioassay Results of CE-Allicin 5% ME (Dati-Allin)
Against Tobacco Bacterial Wilt and Citrus Bacterial Canker


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Fig. 8: Indoor Bioassay Results of CE-Allicin 5% ME (Dati-Allin) Against Bacterial Stripe


In conclusion, CE Allicin 5% ME with dosage 1:500, 1:1000 and 1: 2000 has better or similar inhibitory effects on citrus canker, tobacco bacterial wilt and rice bacterial leaf blight compared with that of the control products. The highest inhibitory rate on tobacco bacterial wilt can reach 97.81%, on citrus canker can reach 97.18%, on rice bacterial leaf blight can reach 74.04%. Moreover, CE Allicin 5% ME showed the stimulating effects on growth of plants.


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Fig. 9: Control Effect of CE-Allicin 5% ME (Dati-Allin) on melon Fusarium Solani


The microscopic examination showed that CE Allicin 5% ME and hymexazol both can inhibit the production of conidia, reduce the fungal pathogenicity so as to reduce the ability of infection in plants.


Field test evaluation. In order to solve the problem of practical application of botanical pesticides in the fields and give full play to their advantages, Chengdu Newsun establishes a disease control system of biopesticides ″prevention-preventive cure-cure″, that is to use biopesticides alone before and at the early stage of disease infection to inhibit the pathogen spread and reduce infection rate. This has good effects and effectively reduces the damage caused by biotic stresses.


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Fig. 10: Trials of CE-Allicin 5% ME (Dati-Allin) on Rice Bacterial Stripe Disease in Baise, Guangxi Province


The field trials results of CE Allicin 5% ME for controlling rice bacterial stripe disease showed that use CE Allicin 5% ME at the early stage of infection for two times, and after 10 days of the second application, 0.75L/ha CE Allicin 5% ME had better results than chemical bactericide. 0.6L/ha CE Allicin ME had similar results with the chemical bactericide. In addition, the rice plants with CE Allicin treatment were more healthy with greener leaves.



In the middle and late stages of disease infection, which means the peak stages of diseases, neither chemical pesticide or biopesticide alone can control the diseases effectively. In order to get a better result, overdose of chemical pesticide is usually used, resulting in continuous pesticide resistance development. Therefore, use the strategy of ″biological pesticide + chemical pesticide″ as the core technology to reduce the use of chemical pesticides and increase the control efficiency. With the addition of biopesticide, the pathogen infection index and disease infection can be greatly reduced and the control efficiency is significantly improved, at the same time, to reduce the use of chemical pesticides and resistance problem, reduce chemical residues, improve the quality of agricultural products, improve the environment, preserve biodiversity and alleviate environmental pressure. The strategy of biopesticide + chemical pesticide can increase the general control efficiency by 20% with 30-50% reduced amount of chemical pesticide.


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Fig. 11: Trials of CE-Allicin 5% ME (Dati-Allin) on Rice Bacterial Stripe Disease in Xuzhou, Jiang Province


The large amounts of the field results showed that at peak stages of bacterial diseases, CE Allicin 5% ME  in combination with the chemical bactericides such as kasugamycin and copper products can reduce 30-50% using amount of the chemical bactericides and increase field results by 20%. After application, the wound heals quickly, and the spread of bacteria pathogen and lesions is inhibited quickly. And it also can stimulate the plant cells self repair, and be eco-friendly.

In Xuzhou, Jiangsu Province, when treated by Newsun Products ″CE-Allicin 5% ME (Dati-Allin) + Kasugamycin 2%″ with once application only, the rice bacterial stripe disease can be controlled quickly, the diseases spots become dry, the leaves turn green, and the grains are fully filled. When treated by other products, the rice bacterial stripe disease continues to spread, the leaves dry out and the grains are blighted.


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Fig. 12: Trials of CE-Allicin 5% ME (Dati-Allin) on Citrus Bacterial Canker


The efficacy on citrus bacterial canker can reach to 74.80% when treated by CE-Allicin 5% ME (Dati-Allin) 500 dilution times + Kasugamycin 2% AS 1000 dilution times, and the scarring was fast, the disease spot became dry quickly, and the wound healed well.


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Fig. 13: Trials of CE-Allicin 5% ME (Dati-Allin) on Citrus Bacterial Canker in Nanning, Guangxi Province


In Nanning, after 5 days treated by CE-Allicin 5% ME (Dati-Allin) 1000 dilution times + Kasugamycin 2%, citrus bacterial canker disease spot turn brown and begin to dry out, and the leaves turn visibly green.


After 6 days treated by CE-Allicin 5% ME (Dati-Allin) + Kasugamycin 6%, Mango Anthracnose disease spots became dry quickly, and the wound healed well.


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Fig. 14: Trials of CE-Allicin 5% ME (Dati-Allin) on Mango Anthracnose


To sum up, in the peak stages of bacterial disease infection, use CE Allicin 5% ME in combination with the chemical bactericide such as kasugamycin can significantly reduce the lesion index and pathogen infection ability, and has significant effects in the prevention and control of bacterial diseases. The lesions are controlled and stop spread quickly and the wounds heal well. The field efficiency can last for more than 30 days. In addition, with the reduction using of chemical bactericides, the antibiotic residues and other chemical bactericides in the agricultural products can totally meet The Maximum Residue Limit Of Pesticides In Food Of The National Food Safety Standard Of China, The Maximum Residue Limit Of Pesticides In Food Of The European Union and The Maximum Residue Limit Of Pesticides In Food Of The United States, which provides a solid guarantee for food safety and agricultural product quality.


3.Synthetic Biology Technology Boosts the Industrialization of Allicin


China is the largest producer of garlic in the world, and many regions have a tradition of growing garlic. In 2017, China's garlic planting area and yield accounted for 51.98% and 78.88% of the world respectively. Now China is also the largest garlic exporter in the world, and the garlic export quantity kept growing from 2014 to 2019 [8]. According to the statistics of the World Food and Agriculture Organization, from 2014 to 2017, China's garlic production, export quantity and export value increased steadily. These data show that the export quantity and export value of Chinese garlic ranks first in the world [9, 10], providing a solid foundation for the industrialization of allicin.


At the same time, with the rapid development of modern biotechnology, the use of synthetic biology technology for enzymatic biosynthesis of allicin has made a progress, and the industrialization research is under development, which will further promote the in-depth industrialization of allicin in the future.


4.The Market Potential of Chengdu Newsun CE Allicin for Prevention and Control of Bacterial Diseases


Till 2022, there are 693 bactericides registered in China, the majority of which are copper products, antibiotics including zhongshengmycin, kasugamycin, and tetramycin, acetate compounds, and microbial products such as Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus polymyxa. There products have big homogeneity in the market. In addition, these products are mainly for prevention, and few products for control and cure. Many products have a long history and old, and are usually used repeatedly by farmers, resulting in pesticide resistance development and reduced control efficiency. At present, the bacterial diseases occur all year round in many areas of the world, which seriously restricts the production of various crops including field crops, fruit trees, vegetables, grain and oil crops, and medicinal crops. The market potential exceeds 10 billion RMB (about USD1.5 billion).


According to statistics, in 2018, the bactericide market in China was about 1.8 billion RMB (about USD 268 million), and the market size is expected to reach about 3 billion RMB (about USD 448 million) in the next 10 years, among which the market of citrus canker is estimated to be 240 million RMB (about USD 36 million) per year in China[11-12]. In future, the new natural source compound CE Allicin + chemical bactericide for controlling bacterial diseases will have great market potential.


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[2] Su Beiting, Su Zhendan, Zhang Surong. Research progress on the antibacterial mechanism of allicin [J]. Chinese Journal of Biomedical Engineering, 2020(2):6.
[3] Zhang Jiayang. Main chemical bactericides for bacterial diseases [J]. Global Market, 2019, 000(002):260.
[4] Chu Le, Zhao Yan, Zhou Yuanxin, etc. Research on extraction of allicin by supercritical CO2[J]. Agricultural Products Processing, 2013,9(3):33-34
[5] Sun Cuiling, Yu Dasheng. Extraction and application of allicin [J]. Guangzhou Chemical Industry, 2009,37(6):64
[6] Cui Bofa. Field efficacy test of 47% kasugamycin + Copper oxychloride in prevention and control of citrus canker [J]. South China Fruits, 2007, 36(2):1.
[7] Yu Xinying, Zhang Guoliang, Fan Song, Huang Zhiwei, Zhang Ye. Research progress of botanical pesticides [J]. Heilongjiang Agricultural Science, 2021(07):123-129.
[8] Ma Zhaodi, Ding Tianjiao. Research on the status of China's garlic export and trade [J]. Rural Economy and Technology, 2017, 28(2): 64, 266.
[9] Yang Binbin, Zong Yixiang, Zhao Banghong. Research on the development path of garlic export & trade between China and the countries along the ″Belt and Road″ [J]. Northern Horticulture, 2019(9): 164-169.
[10] Ma Longchuan, Ning Ning, Yu Xujing. Problems and development suggestions of garlic processing industry in Jinxiang County [J]. Bulletin of Agricultural Science and Technology, 2018(8): 36-38.
[11] Wang Xiaoyu, Peng Aitian, Song Xiaobing, Huang Feng, Cui Yiping. Research progress on comprehensive prevention and control of citrus canker [J]. China Agricultural Science Bulletin, 2021, 37(31): 106-111.
[12] Yao Tingshan, Zhou Yan, Zhou Changyong. Research progress on the application of copper preparations to control citrus canker [J]. Acta Horticulturae Sinica, 2016, 43(9):8.


Newsun Crop Science's website: http://www.cdxzy.com

E-mail: newsunagro@cdxzy.com


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