Some 14 pesticide active ingredients are under review in Brazil from autumn this year to summer 2008 for their effects on human health. They include the herbicide, glyphosate, for its intensive use, impurities and acceptable daily intake. It was assessed two months ago. The authorities have since proposed that its toxicity danger level be raised from Class IV (slightly toxic) to Class I (extremely toxic).
The Ministry of Health's national health surveillance agency, the Anvisa, leads the evaluations, which measure the pesticides' effects on human health. The Ministries of Agriculture and of the Environment and pesticide industry representatives are also taking part.
The agency has recently assessed the: acaricide, cyhexatin, for high acute toxicity, suspected carcinogenic and neurotoxicity effects; the avermectin insecticide, abamectin, for acute toxicity, impurities, metabolites and its effects on reproductive development; the OC insecticide, endosulfan, for high acute toxicity and its suspected irregular effects on endocrine levels; the OP insecticide, phosmet, for neurotoxicity and possible carcinogenic effects. Results are to be published soon.
Assessments on other ais are to be made in 2008, including on the OP insecticides: parathion-methyl, for acute high toxicity, neurotoxicity, impurities and possible mutagenic effects; phorate, for high acute toxicity, illegal sales and neurotoxicity; and trichlofom, for neurotoxicity, potential carcinogenic, mutagenic and reproductive effects. The insecticide/acaricide, methamidophos, will also be assessed early in next year for high acute toxicity, neurotoxicity and impurities.
Studies will be carried out later in 2008 on: the carbamate acaricide/nematicide, carbofuran, for high acute toxicity, illegal sales and neurotoxicity; the fungicide and bird repellent, thiram, for suspected irregular endocrine, reproductive and development effects; and on the herbicides, lactofen, for its carginogenicity, and paraquat, for high acute toxicity and acidity. The Anvisa will also re-assess 2,4-D, at an undetermined date for toxicity, impurities and civil actions.
The agency notes that there are 1,224 formulated products and 666 ais registered in Brazil. Herbicides account for 45% of all products, insecticides for 27% and fungicides for 28%.