Columbia University researcher studies how climate change affects crops in India
Jun. 19, 2019
"Expanding the area planted with these four alternative grains can reduce variations in Indian grain production caused by extreme climate, especially in the many places where their yields are comparable to rice," Davis added. "Doing so will mean that the food supply for the country's massive and growing population is less in jeopardy during times of drought or extreme weather."
Temperatures and rainfall amounts in India vary from year to year and influence the amount of crops that farmers can produce. And with episodes of extreme climate such as droughts and storms becoming more frequent, it's essential to find ways to protect India's crop production from these shocks, according to Davis.
The authors combined historical data on crop yields, temperature, and rainfall. Data on the yields of each crop came from state agricultural ministries across India and covered 46 years (1966-2011) and 593 of India's 707 districts. The authors also used modelled data on temperature (from the University of East Anglia's Climate Research Unit) and precipitation (derived from a network of rain gauges maintained by the Indian Meteorological Department). Using these climate variables as predictors of yield, they then employed a linear mixed effects modelling approach - similar to a multiple regression ? to estimate whether there was a significant relationship between year-to-year variations in climate and crop yields.
"This study shows that diversifying the crops that a country grows can be an effective way to adapt its food-production systems to the growing influence of climate change," said Davis. "And it adds to the evidence that increasing the production of alternative grains in India can offer benefits for improving nutrition, for saving water, and for reducing energy demand and greenhouse gas emissions from agriculture."
The research was supported by the Data Science Institute, The Nature Conservancy's NatureNet Science Fellows program, and the European Research Council. The co-authors on the paper are Ashwini Chhatre, an Associate Professor of Public Policy at the Indian School of Business in Hyderabad; Narasimha D Rao, Assistant Professor of Energy Systems at Yale's School of Forestry and Environmental Studies; Deepti Singh, an Assistant Professor in the School of the Environment at Washington State University in Vancouver; and Ruth DeFries, University Professor of Ecology and Sustainable Development at Columbia University.
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