The US EPA has granted an experimental use permit (EUP) to the Arizona Cotton Research and Protection Council (ACRPC - Phoenix, Arizona) to test the biopesticide, Aspergillus flavus AF36, for the reduction of aflatoxin contamination in maize. The benign A flavus strain competes with aflatoxin-producing strains. The EUP applies to 24,000 acres (9,700 ha) of maize over three years until January 4th 2011. Last year, the ACRPC received an EUP to test the biopesticide on pistachios. It was approved for use on cotton in 2003.