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China announces insecticide resistance monitoring results for 13 major insect pestsqrcode

May. 9, 2016

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May. 9, 2016
The National Agricultural Technology Extension Service Center started monitoring the pesticide resistance of 13 major insect pests, including the planthopper, rice stem borer, wheat scab, cotton bollworm, cotton aphid, and diamondback moth, in 2015, evaluating 33 commonly used field insecticide products. The results are as follows:
 
1. Resistance of paddy insects
 
1.1 Brown planthopper 
 
1.1.1 Neonicotinoid insecticide resistance 
 
All brown planthopper populations in the monitored region have developed a very high level of resistance to the first-generation neonicotinoid imidacloprid (with a resistance ratio above 1,000-fold) as well as a moderately high level of resistance to the second-generation neonicotinoid thiamethoxam (resistance ratio: above 200-fold). Their resistance to nitenpyram, on the other hand, is between the sensitive state and low levels. With the third-generation neonicotinoid dinotefuran, resistance is at a medium level (resistance ratio: 1.6-8–fold).
 
1.1.2 Organophosphorus resistance 
 
All brown planthopper populations in the monitored region have developed a medium level of resistance to the chlorpyrifos  insecticide (resistance ratio: 10-64–fold), which is a significant rise compared with the low levels registered in 2014.
 
1.1.3 Insect growth regulator resistance 
 
All brown planthopper populations in the monitored region have developed high resistance to buprofezin (resistance ratio: 200-fold), which is a significant rise compared with levels in 2014, when it jumped from low resistance to a medium level.
 
1.1.4 Pymetrozine resistance 
 
Brown planthopper populations in Jiangsu and Fujian provinces have stayed at a medium level of resistance to pymetrozine (resistance ratio: 58-67–fold) while showing high resistance (resistance ratio: 160-302–fold) in the Zhejiang, Hubei, Guangdong, and Guangxi provinces.
 
1.2 White-backed planthopper 
 
White-backed planthopper populations in the monitored region have developed medium to high resistance to the insect growth regulator buprofezin (resistance ratio: 34-192–fold) and medium resistance to the organophosphate pesticide Dursban (resistance ratio: 18-50–fold) and are sensitive to the neonicotinoid insecticides imidacloprid and thiamethoxam. Compared with levels in 2014, the resistance of Sogatella furcifera to various insecticides remains largely unchanged. 
 
1.3 Small brown planthopper 
 
The small brown planthopper in the Yangtze mid/downstream regions (Jiangsu, Anhui, and Zhejiang) is sensitive to the neonicotinoid insecticides thiamethoxam and nitenpyram and most of its populations are sensitive to pymetrozine. Resistance to the latter in the Gaochun District populations in Jiangsu is at a low level. The small brown planthopper is at a medium level of resistance to the Dursban pesticide (resistance ratio: 12-67–fold).
 
1.4 Rice stem borer 
 
1.4.1 Bisamide insecticide resistance
 
The rice stem borer in parts of the Zhejiang, Anhui, Jiangxi, and Hubei provinces has low to medium resistance to chlorantraniliprole (resistance ratio: 7.1-70–fold) and flubendiamide (resistance ratio: 6.1-138–fold), though the latter appears to be rising significantly.
 
1.4.2 Organophosphorus resistance
 
The rice stem borer in the Zhejiang, Anhui, Jiangxi, and Hunan provinces has low to medium resistance to the organophosphate pesticide Dursban (resistance ratio: 5.8-14–fold) and triazophos (resistance ratio: 7.7-80–fold).
 
1.4.3 Nereistoxin resistance 
 
The rice stem borer in the monitored region is sensitive to the nereistoxin monosultap. Compared with levels in 2014, its monosultap resistance has dropped to a sensitive state from low-level resistance.
 
1.4.4 Macrolides resistance
 
The rice stem borer in the monitored region has low to medium resistance to the macrolide abamectin (resistance ratio: 5.5-13–fold), which appears to be rising significantly compared with levels in 2014.
 
2. Resistance of wheat insects
 
2.1 Gibberella fujikuroi disease - Carbendazim resistance
 
 
 
Test results in the monitored region reveal that carbendazim resistance mostly occurs in Jiangsu and its neighboring regions. Compared with resistance levels in 2014, the resistant germs have formed a strong group, and the bacteria resistance frequency is on the rise. Tolerant bacteria have exceeded 60% of the pathogenic populations in the province.
 
2.2 Aphids
 
The aphids in the monitored region are sensitive to the commonly used imidacloprid, acetamiprid, sulfoxaflor, omethoate, pirimicarb, and beta-cypermethrin. The sensitivity of the bird cherry-oat aphid (Rhopalosiphum padi Linnaeus) to insecticides in different locations varies more significantly than that of Macrosiphum avenae. The populations in Gucheng County of Hebei Province and Zhumadian City of Henan Province have low resistance to pyrethroids (resistance ratio: 5.8-fold) and beta-cypermethrin (resistance ratio: 7.3-fold), while being sensitive to pirimicarb, omethoate, sulfoxaflor, and acetamiprid.
 
3. Resistance of cotton insects 
 
3.1 Cotton bollworm
 
3.1.1 Pyrethroids resistance 
 
All cotton bollworm populations in the monitored region have medium to high resistance to the pyrethroid cyhalothrin (resistance ratio: 20-329–fold). The Shawan populations in Xinjiang's cotton region were, for the first time, found to have high resistance to cyhalothrin (resistance ratio: 139-fold). Compared with resistance levels in 2014, the resistance ratio of the cotton bollworm to cyhalothrin in most of the monitored region has increased to a certain extent.
 
3.1.2 Organophosphorus resistance
 
The cotton bollworm populations in the cotton regions of northern China and Xinjiang have medium resistance to the organophosphate insecticide phoxim (resistance ratio: 12-65–fold), while the populations in the Yangtze cotton region have low resistance to it (resistance ratio: 5.4-7.6–fold). Compared with levels in 2014, the resistance ratio of the cotton bollworm to phoxim in the cotton region of northern China has increased to some extent.
 
3.1.3 Macrolides resistance
 
Cotton bollworm populations in the cotton region of northern China and Xinjiang have low to medium resistance to the macrolides (4''R)-4''-deoxy-4''-(methylamino)avermectin B1 benzoate (resistance ratio: 5.8-39–fold). The populations in Yangtze cotton region, meanwhile, are in a sensitive state. Compared with levels in 2014, cotton bollworm resistance to (4''R)-4''-deoxy-4''-(methylamino)avermectin B1 benzoate in the cotton region of northern China has increased noticeably.
 
3.2 Cotton aphids 
 
All cotton aphid populations in the monitored region are at a high level of resistance to the pyrethroid deltamethrin and the neonicotinoid imidacloprid, with the resistance ratio in some areas having reached 10,000-fold. They have medium resistance to the organophosphate omethoate and the carbamate carbosulfan. There is a marked difference in sensitivity to sulfoxaflor between populations in different locations, with medium to high resistance (resistance ratio: 91-191–fold) seen in the northern China cotton region and medium to low resistance  seen in the Yangtze cotton region.
  
3.3 Green plant bug
 
Green plant bug populations in the monitored region are sensitive to the carbamate methomyl, while showing medium resistance to the organophosphate insecticide malathion and the neonicotinoid imidacloprid.
 
4. Resistance of vegetable insects
 
4.1 Diamondback moth
 
4.1.1 Abamectin and beta-cypermethrin resistance
 
Most of the monitored diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella) populations show high resistance to abamectin (resistance ratio: 206-2400–fold) and beta-cypermethrin (resistance ratio: 111-1843–fold). Compared with levels in 2014, the resistance ratio of Plutella xylostella populations to abamectin in most areas has increased.
 
4.1.2 Chlorantraniliprole
 
The resistance of Plutella xylostella populations to chlorantraniliprole has become even more divided. The populations in the vegetable regions of the Hunan, Guangdong, Hainan, and Yunnan provinces have seen resistance to chlorantraniliprole (resistance ratio: 51-472–fold) increase to medium to high levels, higher than the resistance in populations in the vegetable regions of northern China.
 
4.1.3 Chlorfenapyr, indoxacarb, and chlorfluazuron
 
The resistance ratios of the monitored Plutella xylostella populations to chlorfenapyr (27-555–fold), indoxacarb (35-244–fold), and chlorfluazuron (26-157–fold) have all increased slightly compared with ratios in 2014. The medium to high level resistant populations are mostly found in the vegetable regions of the Hunan, Guangdong, Hainan, and Yunnan provinces.
  
4.2 Beet armyworm
 
Shanghai's Fengxian and Chongming districts' beet armyworm populations all show medium resistance to chlorantraniliprole (resistance ratio: 24-40–fold),methoxyfenozide (resistance ratio: 39-41–fold), and indoxacarb (resistance ratio: 11-20–fold). Hubei's Huangpi District's populations have medium resistance to chlorantraniliprole (resistance ratio: 12-fold) and are sensitive to methoxyfenozide and indoxacarb.
 
4.3 Silverleaf whitefly
  
Silverleaf whitefly populations in the northern vegetable regions of Beijing, Shanxi, and Shandong are sensitive to thiamethoxam and have medium to low resistance to pyriproxyfen (resistance ratio at 6.5-19–fold) and spirotetramat (resistance ratio: 5.4-16–fold). The Bemisia tabaci populations in the southern vegetable regions of Hubei and Hunan have higher resistance to thiamethoxam (resistance ratio: 8-fold) than those in the north and medium to high resistance to pyriproxyfen (resistance ratio: 21-63–fold) and spirotetramat (resistance ratio: 60-193–fold).
 
4.4 Black peach  aphid 
 
The black peach aphid populations in the monitored region have all developed a high level of resistance to the neonicotinoid imidacloprid and the carbamate pirimicarb (resistance ratio: above 100-fold), as well as medium to high resistance to the pyrethroid bifenthrin (resistance ratio: 15-250–fold) and the novel insecticide sulfoxaflor (resistance ratio: 69-176–fold).
 
Source: AgroNews
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